Health

Atrophic Kidney-Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, complication & Treatment

Renal atrophy Disease

Your kidneys perform the vital job of filtering waste from your blood to produce urine while retaining what your body needs. But when these fist-sized organs start to shrivel and shrink due to damage, known medically as kidney atrophy, serious complications can arise. Being aware of this condition, including its causes, symptoms, risk factors, and available treatment options, is key to preserving kidney health before permanent injury sets in.

The kidneys contain around 1 million tiny structures called nephrons that act as individual filtering units removing wastes and excess fluid from the blood. Nephrons are comprised of a glomerulus capillary network connected to a tubule. In atrophic kidney disease, these nephrons slowly get destroyed by inflammatory scarring processes over months and years. This can be triggered by things like chronic obstruction, hypertension, toxins, infections, or autoimmunity.

As more and more nephrons undergo fibrosis and atrophy, the remaining healthy nephrons struggle to pick up the slack by adapting and expanding their filtration capacity. But there is a tipping point beyond which compensation fails, and kidney function starts to decline. By the time kidney atrophy is usually detected, over two-thirds of nephrons may already be non-functional or completely obliterated. The kidneys visibly shrink smaller as scar tissue replaces previously healthy filtration tissue.

What Is The Renal Atrophy?

Kidney atrophy refers to the loss of nephrons, the tiny structures within the kidneys that filter the blood. This causes gradual shrinkage and scarring of kidney tissue over months or years, resulting in an irreversible loss of kidney function. It can affect one or both kidneys.

While acute kidney injury can sometimes recover, the progression of atrophic kidney disease is generally chronic, slowly eating away at kidney capacity bit by bit. This is concerning when over two-thirds of kidney function has already been destroyed before symptoms may appear. Catching it early is key.

kidney
kidney

What Causes Atrophic Kidney?

Several potential culprits set off inflammation and destruction of delicate nephrons, bringing on kidney shrinkage:

  • Chronic obstruction – Blockage in the urinary tract from issues like kidney stones, prostate enlargement, tumors, or retroperitoneal fibrosis can back up urine flow, creating pressure that kills nephrons over time. This is the most common cause of atrophic kidney disease.
  • Blood vessel damage – Health conditions like chronic high blood pressure or autoimmune diseases such as vasculitis, lupus, and IgA nephropathy can inflict injury to the small renal blood vessels that nourish nephrons. This brings on scarring.
  • Glomerular disorders – Diseases attacking the tufts within nephrons that filter the blood can drive nephron loss. Examples include various forms of glomerulonephritis.
  • Infections – Certain chronic infections such as HIV, malaria, hepatitis, and tuberculosis can instigate immune-related kidney damage.
  • Toxins – Heavy metal poisoning and alcohol abuse are toxic insults that can set off inflammation ruining nephrons.
  • Genetics – There are also some inherited conditions associated with progressive kidney atrophy, such as polycystic kidney disease.

Symptoms of Atrophic Kidney

The tricky thing with atrophic kidney disease is that most people experience zero obvious symptoms until over two-thirds of total kidney function has already withered away. This is why screening those at high risk is important.

When symptoms do begin surfacing, they mirror general kidney disease symptoms, which may include:

  • Fatigue and weakness
  • Itchy skin or rashes
  • Nausea and metallic taste
  • Poor appetite
  • Muscle cramps
  • Trouble concentrating
  • Foamy or dark urine
  • Swelling in hands and feet (edema)

Once a substantial loss of kidney function sets in, dangerous levels of waste can build up quickly in the body. This uremic poisoning demands emergency dialysis.

Symptoms of Atrophic Kidney
Symptoms of Atrophic Kidney

Who’s at Risk?

Those with the following risk factors should be particularly vigilant about monitoring for signs of kidney atrophy:

  • Chronic urinary tract obstruction
  • Chronic hypertension
  • Diabetes
  • Autoimmune disorders
  • Recurrent kidney infections
  • HIV or hepatitis B/C virus
  • Significant alcohol abuse
  • Toxin exposure through work or environment
  • Family history of kidney disease

Catching decreasing kidney function early allows more opportunity to intervene and prevent further deterioration towards kidney failure.

Diagnosing Atrophic Kidney

If atrophic kidney disease is suspected based on risk factors and symptoms, doctors can deploy several tests to assess shrinking damage:

Blood and urine tests – Levels of waste products like creatinine help estimate kidney filtration ability while urine protein indicates kidney injury. These can catch dysfunction before major symptoms arise.

Imaging tests – Ultrasounds, CT scans, and MRIs provide detailed structural views of kidney shrinkage and scarring in real-time. This visual damage often correlates with functional decline.

Kidney biopsy – Extracting a tiny sample of kidney tissue for examination under a microscope can definitively confirm loss of nephrons and diagnosis causes like chronic glomerulonephritis.

Once the diagnosis has been made, identifying and addressing the root trigger, whether infection, toxins or structural blockage, can help stabilize further kidney deterioration.

Complications from Atrophic Kidney

As nephrons keep succumbing to inflammatory damage, the kidneys lose their ability to properly clear bodily waste products. Dangerous, even life-threatening, complications can accumulate:

  • Waste product toxicity – Levels of creatinine, urea, and electrolytes start accumulating as filtration capacity shrinks. This uremic poisoning makes one very ill.
  • High blood pressure – Failing kidneys trigger complex changes in hormones and fluid balance that frequently induce treatment-resistant hypertension.
  • Anemia – Impaired kidneys cannot produce enough erythropoietin to stimulate red blood cell production leading to unhealthy pallor.
  • Bone disease – The resulting high phosphate levels can leach calcium from bones making them brittle and prone to fracture.
  • Fluid retention – Damaged kidneys struggle to regulate fluid volume, causing symptoms like shortness of breath and swelling.

Clearly, the stakes intensify the longer nephron loss drags on. Intervening early with treatment is vital.

Treatment Options for Atrophic Kidney

The key treatment goal focuses on halting the inciting root cause of inflammatory nephron loss in order to preserve remaining kidney function. This means relieving any obstruction, getting blood pressure firmly controlled, attending to infections, stopping toxins, and modifying autoimmune flares or genetic disorders to the degree possible.

Medications

Diuretics, ACE inhibitors, ARBs, calcium channel blockers, erythropoietin injections, vitamin D, and phosphate binders all have roles in managing symptoms and complications in order to delay further kidney damage.

Dialysis

If kidneys become severely compromised, regularly cleansing the blood through hemodialysis becomes necessary until definitive treatment. Peritoneal dialysis is sometimes used.

Surgery

Operative procedures may be undertaken to relieve obstruction, drain cysts, or remove non-functioning kidney tissue in certain cases.

Kidney transplant

When kidneys fail, a kidney transplant from a matched donor represents the optimal lifelong solution. Dialysis supports patients while awaiting transplantation.

Lifestyle measures

Quitting smoking, maintaining a healthy weight, controlling diabetes and blood pressure, staying active, limiting alcohol, and managing stress can benefit kidney health.

The prognosis largely depends on the specific trigger and extent of nephron damage already inflicted at diagnosis. However several promising drugs now in development seek to directly protect these delicate filtration units.

Dialysis 
Dialysis

Supportive Food For Atrophic Kidney

Here are some of the best foods to include in your diet to support kidney health when dealing with atrophic kidney disease:

Berries

Berries like strawberries, blueberries, and raspberries contain antioxidants called anthocyanins that protect kidneys from inflammation and scarring. They also aid in toxin removal.

Fish

Foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids like salmon, tuna, mackerel, and sardines reduce kidney injury risks and help build back healthy cell membranes in the kidneys.

Olive Oil

Studies indicate the monounsaturated fats and polyphenols in cold-pressed olive oil specifically help prevent the formation of scar tissue in the kidneys, preserving nephrons.

Green Vegetables

Broccoli, cabbage, spinach, kale, and other greens contain helpful compounds that prevent toxin buildup in kidneys while supplying key vitamins and minerals for self-repair processes.

Red Grapes

The skin and seeds of red grapes are uniquely high in resveratrol and other polyphenols shown in research to protect nephrons against fibrosis in animal models of kidney disease.

Apples

Compounds derived from apple peel and flesh called phlorizin and querctin enhance kidney function and shield nephrons from oxidative injury contributing to atrophy.

Turmeric

Curcumin, the main bioactive ingredient in turmeric, exhibits both anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic activity in the kidneys based on cell studies, helping preserve nephrons.

Remember to also limit sodium, phosphorus, and potassium as recommended by your doctor while dealing with declining kidney function. Staying well-hydrated supports the kidneys as well.

Supportive Food
Supportive Food

FAQs

Here are answers to some frequently asked questions about atrophic kidney disease:

Can atrophic kidney disease be reversed once kidneys start shrinking?

Unfortunately, the nephron damage and kidney scarring arising from chronic inflammation tend to be irreversible at some point. However, progression may still be slowed or halted in many cases with prompt treatment targeting root causes.

What are the stages of kidney atrophy based on the level of function lost?

The five stages of chronic kidney disease reflect worsening GFR filtration rate: Stage 1 > 90 mL/min (normal function) Stage 2 = 60-89 mL/min (mild loss)
Stage 3 = 30-59 mL/min (moderate loss) Stage 4 = 15-29 mL/min (severe loss) Stage 5 < 15 mL/min (kidney failure)

How likely is just one kidney to keep working normally long-term after the other kidney has atrophied?

If disorders only affect one kidney, the unaffected kidney can often adequately compensate. But bilateral disease triggering nephron loss in both increases risks of complications, filtration deficits, and kidney failure.

Is kidney atrophy the same thing as kidney shrinkage?

Yes, the terms atrophic kidney disease/atrophy and kidney shrinkage describe the same condition involving inflammatory destruction and scarring of nephrons leading to a gradual loss of kidney tissue mass.

Can I donate a kidney if I have atrophic kidney disease?

Kidney donors require two sound-functioning kidneys without pathology or abnormalities. The loss of nephron mass from atrophic kidney disease means diminished capacity and usually excludes candidacy.

Last Words

Kidney atrophy might seem like just a shrinkage problem, but it’s the irreplaceable nephrons quietly dying off behind the scenes that cause real trouble. These tiny filtering workhorses have a limited capacity to compensate for progressive losses. That’s why tuning into symptoms, screening for risks, and investigating causes without delay is so vital for people vulnerable to insidious atrophic kidney disease. With awareness and early intervention, further nephron destruction may often be curtailed, dialysis avoided, and transplant options preserved. Your kidneys deserve special care and attention.

Selina

My name is Selina, a medical specialist blogger helping people access treatment for 5+ years. Although blogging awhile, only recently deeply engaged. This past year my most productive, providing hospital reviews and info on symptoms, diagnoses and diseases. Also offer guidelines to help readers navigate healthcare. Goal to continue increased content pace to assist many. Aim to facilitate treatment and empower advocacy through writing.

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